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Lesson Design

Lesson Format

Each Procedural Fluency lesson follows the workshop model with three main components: mini lesson, workshop and closure. The brief mini lesson is delivered by the teacher and introduces students to the key work of the day. The main part of each lesson is the workshop where students are working collaboratively to practice known facts as well as choosing and applying strategies for solving unknown facts. Student reflection, which can take many forms, is the closure for each lesson.

Individual lessons outline a plan for explicit instruction on the foundational facts and/or derived fact strategies. Supplemental activities and games included are meant to provide additional support to students in developing mastery with the facts. Plan to spend multiple sessions for game play where students are given ample time to practice foundational facts and derived fact strategies. Moving ahead too soon to the next derived fact strategy will not lead to fluency. Expecting students to respond quickly and accurately such as in timed tests too soon can be detrimental (Beilock, 2010; Boaler, 2014; Isaacs & Carroll, 1999; Ramirez, Gunderson, Levine & Beilock, 2013). The lessons are outlined by strategy and most could be completed in one session. However, teachers should anticipate multiple days for students to practice strategy selection and application with game play. For example, students may require several sessions with the Making 10 strategy.

Italicized text provides suggested teacher script. Modifications to the suggested script to fit the needs of individual students where appropriate is recommended. The regular incorporation of student ideas and voice is essential. Students should be regularly called upon to share their thinking in discussion and where applicable charted on visible displays such as anchor charts or whiteboard.

Featured on the first page of each lesson are key details for advanced preparation and consideration for teachers.

Big Ideas
This gives a synopsis for each lesson and includes the focus for student work.

Mathematics Standards

This lists the most important content and processes for the lesson.

Getting Ready
This section signals what materials to gather, recording sheet considerations for students, assessment notes and anything else needed before starting the lesson.



The workshop approach supports the regular collection of formative assessment data. As students are engaged in playing games, the teacher will confer with individual and small groups of students. Fluency is defined as “skill in carrying out procedures flexibly, accurately, efficiently, and appropriately” (Kilpatrick, Swafford, & Findell, 2001, p. 116). Through observation and questioning, teachers are able to investigate strategy use. Baroody named "counting strategies, reasoning strategies and mastery" as the three phases that children move through as mastery with basic fact combinations is developed (2006).

Observation Checklists aligned to specific strategies are provided for teacher use. Example observation checklists are included in the appendix. Opportunities to determine if students are counting, using strategies and/or have developed mastery with the basic facts occur when students are engaged in playing games and during class discussion when students are asked to share individual solutions and strategies.